Chest 2001 Apr;119(4):1190-209
Management of acute exacerbations of COPD: a summary and appraisal of published evidence.
McCrory DC, Brown C, Gelfand SE, Bach PB
Center for Clinical Health Policy Research, Duke Evidence-Based Practice Center and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To critically review the available data on the diagnostic evaluation, risk stratification, and therapeutic management of patients with acute exacerbations of COPD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: English-language articles were identified from the following databases: MEDLINE (from 1966 to week 5, 2000), EMBASE (from 1974 to week 18, 2000), HealthStar (from 1975 to June 2000), and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (2000, issue 1). The best available evidence on each subtopic then was selected for analysis. Randomized trials, sometimes buttressed by cohort studies, were used to evaluate therapeutic interventions. Cohort studies were used to evaluate diagnostic tests and risk stratification. Study design and results were summarized in evidence tables. Individual studies were rated as to their internal validity, external validity, and quality of study design. Statistical analyses of combined data were not performed. MEASUREMENT AND RESULTS: Limited data exist regarding the utility of most diagnostic tests. However, chest radiography and arterial blood gas sampling appear to be useful, while short-term spirometry measurements do not. In terms of the risk of relapse and the risk of death after hospitalization for an acute exacerbation, there are identifiable clinical variables that are associated with these outcomes. Therapies for which there is evidence of efficacy include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. There is also support for the use of antibiotics in patients with more severe exacerbations. Based on limited data, mucolytics and chest physiotherapy do not appear to be of benefit, and oxygen supplementation appears to increase the risk of respiratory failure in an identifiable subgroup of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although suggestions for appropriate management can be made based on available evidence, the supporting literature is spotty. Further high-quality research is needed and will require an improved, generally acceptable, and transportable definition of the syndrome "acute exacerbation of COPD" and improved methods for observing and measuring outcomes.
PMID: 11296189, UI: 21191962
Chest 2001 Apr;119(4):1049-55
Exhaled nitric oxide correlated with induced sputum findings in COPD.
Silkoff PE, Martin D, Pak J, Westcott JY, Martin RJ
Department of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Neutrophilic airway inflammation may underlie the pathogenesis of COPD. We examined repeated measurements of the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and the correlation with cells and mediators in induced sputum (IS) from patients with COPD. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven COPD subjects (9 men and 2 women, aged 46 to 69 years) with predicted FEV(1) of 45 to 70%. SETTING: A hospital research laboratory. DESIGN: Single-cohort, prospective study with four visits at two weekly intervals. INTERVENTIONS: FENO and spirometry were assessed at all visits, and IS for differential cell count, leukotriene-B(4) (LTB(4)) and interleukin (IL)-8, nitrite, and nitrate at visit 1, visit 3, and visit 4. RESULTS: During the study, there were significant declines in mean percent predicted FEV(1), from 55.2 to 51.6% (p = 0.029), and mean FEV(1)/FVC ratio, from 50.4 to 45.4% (p = 0.001), accompanied by a significant increase in FENO geometric mean (95% confidence limits), from 15.2 (10.9 to 21.2) to 23.6 (17.1 to 32.4) parts per billion (p = 0.037), and sputum LTB(4), from 1.79 (1.03 to 3.11) to 3.57 (1.95 to 6.53) ng/mL (p = 0.033), but no significant change in other sputum parameters. From visits 1 to 4, the change in percent neutrophils correlated with the changes in FENO and IL-8 (r = 0.648, p = 0.028; r = 0.60, p = 0.05, respectively). Hypertonic saline solution induction of sputum caused a fall in FEV(1), from 1.83 +/- 0.44 to 1.46 +/- 0.44 L (p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: The worsening spirometry results were accompanied by significant increases in FENO and sputum LTB(4). FENO may be related to neutrophilic inflammation driven by the chemoattractant IL-8. FENO and IS may be useful markers of airway inflammation in COPD patients. Sputum induction with hypertonic saline solution causes a significant fall in FEV(1) requiring appropriate caution.
PMID: 11296168, UI: 21191941
Chest 2001 Apr;119(4):1043-8
Increased prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in patients with COPD.
Mokhlesi B, Morris AL, Huang CF, Curcio AJ, Barrett TA, Kamp DW
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL, USA. email@example.com
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms in patients with COPD and the association of GER symptoms with the severity of airways obstruction as assessed by pulmonary function tests (PFTs). DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire-based, cross-sectional analytic survey. SETTING: Outpatient pulmonary and general medicine clinics at a Veterans Administration hospital. PATIENTS: Patients with mild-to-severe COPD (n = 100) were defined based on American Thoracic Society criteria. The control group (n = 51) consisted of patients in the general medicine clinic without respiratory complaints or prior diagnosis of asthma or COPD. INTERVENTION: Both groups completed a modified version of the Mayo Clinic GER questionnaire. RESULTS: Compared to control subjects, a greater proportion of COPD patients had significant GER symptoms defined as heartburn and/or regurgitation once or more per week (19% vs 0%, respectively; p < 0.001), chronic cough (32% vs 16%; p = 0.03), and dysphagia (17% vs 4%; p = 0.02). Among patients with COPD and significant GER symptoms, 26% reported respiratory symptoms associated with reflux events, whereas control subjects denied an association. Significant GER symptoms were more prevalent in COPD patients with FEV(1) <or %, as compared with patients with FEV(1) > 50% of predicted (23% vs 9%, respectively; p = 0.08). In contrast, PFT results were similar among COPD patients with and without GER symptoms. An increased number of patients with COPD utilized antireflux medications, compared to control subjects (50% vs 27%, respectively; p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire demonstrated a higher prevalence of weekly GER symptoms in patients with COPD, as compared to control subjects. There was a trend toward higher prevalence of GER symptoms in patients with severe COPD; however, this difference did not reach statistical significance. We speculate that although GER may not worsen pulmonary function, greater expiratory airflow limitation may worsen GER symptoms in patients with COPD.
PMID: 11296167, UI: 21191940
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