Abstracts vom 25.5.2001 aus verschiedenen Fachzeitschriften
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001 Mar;163(4):854-8
Increased nitrosothiols in exhaled breath condensate in inflammatory airway diseases.
Corradi M, Montuschi P, Donnelly LE, Pesci A, Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ
Institute of Respiratory Diseases, University of Parma, Italy.
Nitrosothiols (RS-NOs) are formed by interaction of nitric oxide (NO) with glutathione and may limit the detrimental effect of NO. Because NO generation is increased in airway inflammation, we have measured RS-NOs in exhaled breath condensate in patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We also measured exhaled NO and nitrite (NO(2-)) in the same subjects. RS-NOs were detectable in exhaled breath condensate of all subjects. RS-NOs were higher in subjects with severe asthma (0.81 +/- 0.06 microM) when compared with normal control subjects (0.11 +/- 0.02 microM, p < 0.01) and with subjects with mild asthma (0.08 +/- 0.01 microM, p < 0.01). Elevated RS-NOs values were also found in patients with cystic fibrosis (0.35 +/- 0.07 microM, p < 0.01), in those with COPD (0.24 +/- 0.04 microM, p < 0.01) and in smokers (0.46 +/- 0.09 microM, p < 0.01). In current smokers there was a correlation (r = 0.8, p < 0.05) between RS-NOs values and smoking history (pack/year). We also found elevated concentrations of NO(2-) in patients with severe asthma, cystic fibrosis, or COPD, but not in smokers or patients with mild asthma. This suggests that exhaled NO(2-) is less sensitive than exhaled RS-NOs. This study has shown that RS-NOs are detectable in exhaled breath condensate of healthy subjects and are increased in patients with inflammatory airway diseases. As RS-NOs concentrations in exhaled breath condensate vary in the different airway diseases and increase with the severity of asthma, their measurement may have clinical relevance as a noninvasive biomarker of nitrosative stress.
ˆ Clinical trial
ˆ Controlled clinical trial
PMID: 11282756, UI: 21179916
Respir Med 2001 Apr;95(4):265-74
The role of domiciliary nebulizers in managing patients with severe COPD.
Eiser N, Angus K, McHale S
University Hospital Lewisham, London, UK. email@example.com
The difficulty of assessing nebulizer responses in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been demonstrated before. This study aims to re-examine both the role of domiciliary nebulizers in COPD and also bronchodilator (BD) assessment in individuals. In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial, 19 stable patients with severe COPD were given the following medication 6-hourly for 2-week periods: (1) nebulized salbutamol 2.5 mg with ipratropium 0.5 mg and placebo inhalers (MDI) with spacer; (2) placebo nebules and inhaled salbutamol 400 microg with ipratropium 80 microg via MDI with spacer; (3) inhaled salbutamol 400 microg with ipratropium 80 microg via MDI with spacer (but no placebo nebulized drugs). Both nebulized and MDI drugs produced highly significant improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), specific airways conductance, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and residual volume. There were no significant differences between BD responses obtained after active nebulized and active MDI BDs. From the diary cards, 2 weeks of active nebulized BDs produced a slightly higher median peak expiratory flow (PEF) than active MDI BDs (236 and 219 l m(-1), respectively, P=0.01) and slightly less extra inhaler use (0.8 and 1.1 puffs, respectively, P<0.05) but no significant difference in dyspnoea or quality of life (QOL) scores. There were significant correlations between domiciliary PEF and acute BD-induced changes in FVC and 6MWD, and also between domiciliary dyspnoea scores and acute changes in both total lung capacity and 6MWD. In conclusion, nebulized medication conferred little clinical advantage over the regular use of inhalers with spacers in this group of patients with severe COPD. However, acute changes in total lung capacity, FVC and 6MWD may be useful predictors of the longer-term effects of nebulized BDs in individual patients.
ˆ Clinical trial
ˆ Randomized controlled trial
PMID: 11316108, UI: 21212714
Thorax 2001 May;56(5):366-72
Assessment of airway neutrophils by sputum colour: correlation with airways inflammation.
Stockley RA, Bayley D, Hill SL, Hill AT, Crooks S, Campbell EJ
Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation, with recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen, results in purulent secretions and a variety of potential adverse consequences for patients with chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. We hypothesised that gradations of sputum colour would correlate directly with the myeloperoxidase content of sputum and with various other indicators of the activity and consequences of bronchial diseases. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we quantified sputum colour by reference to a sensitive nine point colour chart and correlated this assessment with indices of a number of inflammatory mediators in sputum. RESULTS: The results indicate that standardised visual measurements of sputum colour correlated strongly with myeloperoxidase, interleukin 8, leucocyte elastase (both activity and total quantity), sputum volume, protein leak, and secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (p<0.001 for all). In addition, there was a strong direct correlation between leucocyte elastase and both myeloperoxidase (p<0.003) and sputum volume (p<0.001), but a strong negative correlation with secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that sputum colour graded visually relates to the activity of the underlying markers of bronchial inflammation. The results of this simple visual analysis of sputum provides guidance concerning underlying inflammation and its damaging potential. It also provides a useful scientific tool for improving the monitoring of chronic airways diseases and response to treatment.
PMID: 11312405, UI: 21211925
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