Chest 2001 May;119(5):1565-75
A telephone-linked computer system for COPD care.
Young M, Sparrow D, Gottlieb D, Selim A, Friedman R
Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boston, MA 02130, USA. email@example.com
The current revolution in communications technology provides an opportunity for novel approaches to management of medical illness. As economic imperatives lead to a progressive reduction in the time that health-care providers spend with their patients, computerized, telephone-linked communication systems offer an inexpensive, widely available alternative with which patients and providers can maintain contact. Such systems may be particularly useful for providing ongoing monitoring and education of patients with chronic illnesses such as COPD. In this article, we describe the general application of telephone-linked communication systems in the health-care setting. We then present in detail one such system, which provides telephone-linked care for COPD (TLC-COPD). The operation of the system is described, as are its theoretical underpinnings in social learning theory. A randomized clinical trial currently is being performed to study the effects of the TLC-COPD system. The rationale for expected improvements in disease control and quality of life, and for a reduction in acute health-care utilization, is discussed.
PMID: 11348968, UI: 21246554
Chest 2001 May;119(5):1379-86
Is it safe for patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure undergoing home noninvasive ventilation to discontinue ventilation briefly?
Karakurt S, Fanfulla F, Nava S
Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: A brief discontinuation (< 1 week) of long-term ventilation may be necessary in patients who are not totally ventilator-dependent in cases of technical problems, intolerable nasal irritation, upper airway congestion, or travel. We examined the incidence, timing, and causes of possible clinical deterioration after a brief withdrawal of ventilation in patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF) who were well-established on long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. PATIENTS: Eleven inpatients in clinically stable condition (COPD, 6 patients; and restrictive thoracic disease [RTD], 5 patients) who had severe CRF (PaCO(2), > 50 mm Hg) and had been receiving NIMV for (mean +/- SD) 19.3 +/- 5.3 months were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS AND MEASUREMENTS: Arterial blood gas (ABG) levels, maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax), breathing pattern, dyspnea rating, and life symptoms (measured by a questionnaire) were recorded daily after NIMV withdrawal for 6 days or until the patients showed clinical and/or ABG level deterioration. Pulmonary function tests were performed and neuromuscular drive was measured at the beginning and the end of the study. RESULTS: Five of the 11 patients (45.4%) [COPD, 3 patients; and RTD, 2 patients] were reconnected to a ventilator before the scheduled time because of ABG level deterioration. Despite these changes, none of the patients reported severe worsening of symptoms or other medical complications. The patients whose ABG levels worsened had statistically significant decreases in tidal volume and PImax, suggesting that the development of alveolar hypoventilation was related to respiratory muscle weakness. CONCLUSIONS: A brief discontinuation of NIMV in patients who were affected by chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure and were well-established on NIMV is associated with a relatively high incidence of ABG level worsening due to the development of alveolar hypoventilation. If NIMV must be briefly interrupted for clinical reasons, the patient should be monitored closely for abrupt worsening, and prompt technical intervention should be provided if a ventilator fails.
PMID: 11348942, UI: 21246528
Chest 2001 May;119(5):1365-70
Smoking characteristics: differences in attitudes and dependence between healthy smokers and smokers with COPD.
Jimenez-Ruiz CA, Masa F, Miravitlles M, Gabriel R, Viejo JL, Villasante C, Sobradillo V
Servicio de Neumologia (Dr. Jimenez-Ruiz), Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid, Spain. A complete list of the participants in the IBERPOC study is given in the.
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the differences in smoking characteristics between a group of smokers with COPD and another group of healthy smokers, both of which were identified in a population-based epidemiologic study. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: This is an epidemiologic, multicenter, population-based study conducted in seven areas of SPAIN: A total of 4,035 individuals, men and women aged 40 to 69 years, who were selected randomly from a target population of 236,412 subjects, participated in the study. INTERVENTIONS: Eligible subjects answered the European Commission for Steel and Coal questionnaire. Spirometry was performed followed by a bronchodilator test when bronchial obstruction was present. The Fagerstrom questionnaire was used for study of the degree of physical nicotine dependence, and the Prochazka model was followed for analysis of the smoking cessation phase. RESULTS: Of 1,023 active smokers, 153 (15%) met the criteria for COPD. Smokers with COPD were more frequently men (odds ratio [OR], 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 3.95), were > or = 46 years of age (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.18 to 3.31), had a lower educational level (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.23 to 3.14), and had smoked > 30 pack-years (OR, 3.70; 95% CI, 2.42 to 5.65). Smokers with COPD showed a higher dependence on nicotine than healthy smokers (mean [+/- SD] Fagerstrom test score, 4.77 +/- 2.45 vs 3.15 +/- 2.38, respectively; p < 0.001) and higher concentrations of CO in exhaled air (mean concentration, 19.7 +/- 16.3 vs 15.4 +/- 12.1 ppm, respectively; p < 0.0001). Thirty-four percent of smokers with COPD and 38.5% of smokers without COPD had never tried to stop smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers with COPD have higher tobacco consumption, higher dependence on nicotine, and higher concentrations of CO in exhaled air, suggesting a different pattern of cigarette smoking. Cases of COPD among smokers predominate in men and in individuals with lower educational levels. A significant proportion of smokers have never tried to stop smoking; thus, advice on cessation should be reinforced in both groups of smokers.
PMID: 11348940, UI: 21246526
Respir Med 2001 Jun;95(6):496-504
Added value of co-morbidity in predicting health-related quality of life in COPD patients.
van Manen JG, Bindels PJ, Dekker EW, Ijzermans CJ, Bottema BJ, van der Zee JS, Schade E
Department of General Practice, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
The extent to which a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient is impaired in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is only to a small extent reflected in clinical and demographical measures. As the influence of comorbidity on HRQoL is less clear, we investigated the added value of 23 common diseases in predicting HRQoL in COPD patients with mild to severe airways obstruction. COPD patients from general practice who appeared to have an forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/inspiratory vital capacity (FEV1/IVC) < predicted -1.64 SD, FEV1 <80% predicted, FEV1 reversibility < 12% and a smoking history, were included (n=163). HRQoL was assessed with the short-form-36 (SF-36) and the presence of comorbidity was determined by a questionnaire, which asked for 23 common diseases. All domains of the SF-36 were best predicted by the presence of three or more co-morbid diseases. FEV1 % predicted, dyspnoea and the presence of one or two diseases were second-best predictors. Co-morbidity explained an additional part of the variance in HRQoL, particularly for emotional functioning (delta R2=0.11). When individual diseases were investigated, only insomnia appeared to be related to HRQoL. As HRQoL is still only partly explained, co-morbidity and other patient characteristics do not clearly distinguish between COPD patients with severe impairments in HRQoL and COPD patients with minor or no impairments in HRQoL. Therefore, it remains important to ask for problems in daily functioning and well-being, rather than to rely on patient characteristics alone.
PMID: 11421508, UI: 21314339
Respir Med 2001 Jun;95(6):476-83
Does the mode of inhalation affect the bronchodilator response in patients with severe COPD?
Eiser NM, Phillips C, Wooler PA
University Hospital Lewisham, London, UK. email@example.com
Spacing devices improve lung deposition of aerosols from metered dose inhalers (MDI) but it is sometimes difficult for dyspnoeic patients to perform maximal breaths with breath-holds needed to inhale the aerosols from them. Our aim was to determine whether the response to bronchodilators (BD) depended on the method of inhalation. We studied 20 patients with moderately severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a mean age of 68 years and a mean of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) of 41% predicted. In a randomized, cross-over fashion they inhaled terbutaline 1.5 mg (six puffs) followed by ipratropium 120 microg (six puffs) via MDI and nebuhaler with either two inspirations to total lung capacity and a 10-sec breath-hold per puff or with six tidal breaths per puff. Before and after BDs we measured FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), airways resistance using interrupter method (Rint) and 6-min walking distance (6MWD). Subsequently, we re-tested nine of these patients with the two methods of inhalation, before and after conventional doses (terbutaline 500 microg+ipratropium 40 microg), then after terbutaline 1 mg and ipratropium 80 microg and finally after nebulized terbutaline 5 mg and ipratropium 500 microg to sec whether there was a dose-dependent difference in effect between the two methods. Spirometry, slow vital capacity (SVC). inspiratory capacity and shuttle walking tests were monitored. In the original 20 patients there were highly significant improvements in all parameters after inhalers, with no significant difference between methods of inhalation. Median improvements after BDs were: FEV1 0.221 and 0.191, FVC 0.501 and 0.381 and 6MWD 40 m and 44 m, for maximal breaths and tidal breathing, respectively. For nine patients, tidal and maximal breaths produced similar effects on lung function and exercise tolerance at both doses of BDs. Nebulized BDs only improved shuttle distances slightly when compared with either method of inhalation from MDI and spacer but had no additional effect on lung function. In conclusion, in patients with moderately severe COPD, BDs given by metered dose inhaler via nebuhaler have similar effects whether given by six easy tidal breaths or the more difficult two maximal breaths with breath-hold. This holds true at small or larger doses of BD. Either method of inhaling six puffs of the BDs can be used as an effective alternative to nebulized aerosol.
Randomized controlled trial
PMID: 11421505, UI: 21314336
Respir Med 2001 Jun;95(6):448-56
Long-term administration of N-acetylcysteine decreases hydrogen peroxide exhalation in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Kasielski M, Nowak D
Centre of Medical Education, Practical Clinical Training Centre, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhale more hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation products than healthy subjects. This may reflect oxidative stress in the airways that plays important role in the development and progression of COPD. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic drug, possesses antioxidant properties as it is a precursor of reduced glutathione that together with glutathione peroxidase may decompose H2O2 and lipid peroxides. We aimed to determine the effect of NAC, 600 mg effervescent tablets (Fluimucil), once a day for 12 months, and placebo on the concentration of H2O2 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) in expired breath condensate and serum levels of two lipid peroxidation products (TBARs, lipid peroxides) in patients with COPD. The study was performed as a double-blind, double-dummy comparison between active drug and placebo in two parallel groups. Forty-four outpatients with stable COPD (22 in the NAC group and 22 in the placebo group) completed the study. Specimens of expired breath condensate and serum were collected at the randomization visit and then every 3 months over 1 year. The concentration of TBARs and H2O2 in expired breath condensate was measured spectrofluorimetrically by the thiobarbituric acid and homovanillic acid methods, respectively. Serum levels of lipid peroxides were determined spectrophotometrically after extraction with butanol and pyridine. Initially, H2O2 exhalation did not differ between the placebo and NAC groups up to 6 months of treatment. After this the significant differences were observed. After 9 and 12 months of treatment NAC group exhaled 2.3-fold (0.17+/-0.33 microM vs. 041+/-0.26 microM, P<0.04) [median 0.01 microM, quartile range (qr)=0.22 vs. median 0.15 microM, qr =0.43] and 2.6-fold (0.15+/-0.23 microM vs. 0.40+/-0.25 microN, P<0.05) median = 0.00 microM, qr = 0.23 vs. median = 0.36 microM, qr = 0.51] less H2O2 than placebo receivers, respectively. No significant effect of NAC administration on TBARs exhalation and serum levels of TBARs and lipid peroxides were noted over the whole treatment period. Also no significant associations between exhaled H2O2 and concentrations of lipid peroxidation products were noted in both treatment groups at any time-point. These results indicate that long-term oral administration of NAC attenuates H2O2 formation in the airways of COPD subjects and prove anti-oxidant action of drug. However, further studies are necessary to estimate the clinical significance of this finding.
Randomized controlled trial
PMID: 11421501, UI: 21314332
Respir Med 2001 Jun;95(6):437-43
A review of long-term oxygen therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Crockett AJ, Cranston JM, Moss JR, Alpers JH
Division of Medicine, Cardiac and Critical Care Services, Flinders Medical Center, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
This study aimed to review the evidence for the use of long-term oxygen therapy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The design was a systematic Cochrane review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of long-term oxygen therapy for COPD and main outcome measure was survival on home oxygen therapy. Five RCTs were identified. Data from two trials of nocturnal oxygen therapy in mild to moderate hypoxaemia were aggregated. Data from the other three trials could not be aggregated because of differences in trial design and patient selection. Treatment with continuous versus nocturnal oxygen therapy produced a significant improvement in mortality after 24 months [Peto odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.25-0.81] for the continuous therapy group. Treatment with oxygen therapy versus no oxygen therapy showed a significant improvement in mortality after five years in the group receiving oxygen therapy (Peto odds ratio 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-0.98). There was no difference in mortality for patients with COPD and mild to moderate daytime hypoxaemia and nocturnal desaturation receiving nocturnal oxygen therapy versus no oxygen therapy or sham treatment. Long-term oxygen therapy versus no oxygen therapy in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia had no effect on survival. In conclusion, long-term oxygen therapy improved survival in a selected group of COPD patients with severe hypoxaemia but few co-morbidities. Long-term oxygen therapy did not improve survival in patients with moderate hypoxaemia or in those with mild to moderate hypoxaemia and arterial desaturation at night.
PMID: 11421499, UI: 21314330
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