Aktuelle Abstracts 02.08.2001

Chest 2001 May;119(5):1347-56

In patients with COPD, treatment with a combination of formoterol and ipratropium is more effective than a combination of salbutamol and ipratropium : a 3-week, randomized, double-blind, within-patient, multicenter study.

D'Urzo AD, De Salvo MC, Ramirez-Rivera A, Almeida J, Sichletidis L, Rapatz G, Kottakis J
Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Horsham, UK.

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of adding formoterol or salbutamol to regular ipratropium bromide treatment in COPD patients whose conditions were suboptimally controlled with ipratropium bromide alone. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, two-period, crossover clinical trial. SETTING: Twenty-four clinics and university medical centers in nine countries. PATIENTS: One hundred seventy-two patients with baseline FEV(1) < or = 65% predicted, with FEV(1) reversibility to salbutamol not exceeding the normal variability of the measurement, and symptomatic despite regular treatment with ipratropium bromide. INTERVENTIONS: Each patient received two treatments in random order: either inhaled formoterol dry powder, 12 microg bid, in addition to ipratropium bromide, 40 microg qid for 3 weeks, followed by salbutamol, 200 microg qid, in addition to ipratropium, 40 microg qid for 3 weeks, or vice versa. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Efficacy end points included morning premedication peak expiratory flow (PEF) during the last week of treatment (primary end point), the area under the curve (AUC) for FEV(1) measured for 6 h after morning dose on the last day of treatment, and symptom scores (from daily diary recordings). Morning PEF and the AUC for FEV(1) were significantly better for formoterol/ipratropium than for salbutamol/ipratropium (p = 0.0003 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The formoterol/ipratropium combination also induced a greater improvement in mean total symptom scores (p = 0.0042). The safety profile of the two treatments was comparable. CONCLUSIONS: In COPD patients requiring combination bronchodilator treatment, the addition of formoterol to regular ipratropium treatment is more effective than the addition of salbutamol.

Publication Types:
Clinical trial
Multicenter study
Randomized controlled trial
PMID: 11348938, UI: 21246524

Respir Med 2001 Jul;95(7):618-26

The body weight-walking distance product as related to lung function, anaerobic threshold and peak VO2 in COPD patients.

Chuang ML, Lin IF, Wasserman K
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC.

The product of walking distance and body weight (D x W) mimics the work of walking. We hypothesized the superiority of D x W to walking distance (D) alone in any correlation with lung function, anaerobic threshold (AT) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). We further hypothesized that the D x W product for a 6-min walk test (6 MWT) would correlate with the AT and VO2max because all three are markers of exercise ability. Thirty-three male chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with mean forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) of 1.2+/-0.4 l (range 0.58-1.86 l) were enrolled. Six patients were excluded due to inability to achieve a maximal test. Lung function and self-assessed every-day activities using a oxygen-cost diagram were evaluated before entry of the study. A maximal effort ramp-pattern cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and a 6 MWT were conducted in random order. Borg score, heart rate, and O2 saturation with pulse oximetry (SpO2) were measured during both exercise tests. VO2 AT and minute ventilation were also measured during the CPET. Correlations were sought between the distance covered in the 6 MWT, and the D x W product with AT, VO2max and other variables. The average D and D x W were 456 m and 27.5 kg km(-1), respectively. D x W was superior to D alone when correlated with the VO2max and AT determined from the CPET, while modestly correlated with the change (delta) in Borg score and delta SpO2 in the 6 MWT and self-assessed every-day activities. Distance x weight product was correlated with the AT and VO2max. In addition, D x W was better correlated with diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and vital capacity than D alone. We conclude that D x W mimics the work of walking better than D and is suggested as a parameter for evaluation of patients' fitness if gas exchange measurements are not available.

PMID: 11453321, UI: 21345873

Respir Med 2001 Jul;95(7):602-5

Association of oral almitrine and medroxyprogesterone acetate: effect on arterial blood gases in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Pinet C, Tessonnier F, Ravel T, Orehek J
Department des Maladies Respiratoires, Hjpital Sainte Marguerite, Marseille, France.

Almitrine (A) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MA) given separately improve arterial blood gases in some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the two drugs given together. Forty-eight patients with irreversible COPD and hypoxaemia were prospectively enrolled into a 14-day run-in period and received single-blind oral treatment with double placebo. Patients whose PaO2 remained stable (less than 10% change; n = 29, 25 males, mean age 65.6 years) were included in a 14-day active treatment period and randomly assigned to three groups. They received double-blind oral treatment with: A (50 mg bid, group A, n = 10); MA (20 mg tid, group MA, n = 9); A (50 mg bid) and MA (20 mg tid, group A+MA, n = 10). Anthropometric and spirometric measurements were similar in the three groups and so were the arterial blood gas values at the beginning and the end of the run-in period. At the end of the active treatment period, blood gas changes (mean+/-SE) were significantly different between groups (P<0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test), with improvement in both hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in group A+MA only: delta PaO2 = 7.4+/-1.9 mmHg, delta PaCO2 = -5.1+/-1.7 m mHg (P<0.05, Wilcoxon test). In short-term treatment, the association of A and MA is more efficient than either drug alone at improving arterial blood gases in COPD patients.

Publication Types:
Clinical trial
Randomized controlled trial
PMID: 11453318, UI: 21345870

Respir Med 2001 Jul;95(7):582-7

An evaluation of short-term oxygen therapy: the prescription of oxygen to patients with chronic lung disease hypoxic at discharge from hospital.

Eaton TE, Grey C, Garrett JE
Department of Respiratory Services, Green Lane Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

The provision of domiciliary oxygen to patients hypoxic at hospital discharge has been termed short-term oxygen therapy (STOT). This practice appears widespread, although there is a paucity of literature and no evidence-based guidelines. We undertook this audit to examine the prescription of STOT and determine the proportion fulfilling for long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) 2 months post-discharge. STOT was defined prospectively: resting PaO2 < or = 7.3 kPa (55 mmHg) or PaO2 between 7.3 and 8.0 kPa (60 mmHg) with any of the following: clinical evidence of cor pulmonale (pedal oedema or jugular venous distension), ECG evidence of pulmonale, echocardiogram evidence of pulmonary hypertension, haematocrit > 0.55 (adapted directly from LTOT criteria). Patients were evaluated for LTOT 2 months post-discharge when clinically stable on optimal medical management. All referrals to the Auckland Regional Oxygen Service between July 1998 and 1999 were systematically reviewed. The majority 289/405 (71%) of new referrals were for the prescription of STOT/LTOT in patients with chronic lung disease: 160/289 (55%) derived from hospitalized patients with the majority 130 (81%) fulfilling criteria for STOT, median age 73, range 24-96 years. Mean hospital stay was 10.2 days. Two months after discharge 22/127 (17%) of STOT patients had died, comparable with 4/22 (18%) not fulfilling criteria for STOT. A total of 123 patients were assessed for LTOT at 2 months; 76 (62%) fulfilled criteria for LTOT. The prescription of oxygen at hospital discharge represented a considerable proportion of our referral load. There was a high mortality in the 2-month follow-up period. A significant proportion of STOT patients did not subsequently fulfill criteria for LTOT. Further prospective studies are required in order to develop evidence-based guidelines.

PMID: 11453315, UI: 21345867

Thorax 2001 Jul;56(7):524-8

Long term effects of non-invasive mechanical ventilation on pulmonary haemodynamics in patients with chronic respiratory failure.

Schonhofer B, Barchfeld T, Wenzel M, Kohler D
Krankenhaus Kloster Grafschaft, Zentrum fur Pneumologie, Beatmungs- und Schlafmedizin, D-57392 Schmallenberg-Grafschaft, Germany.

BACKGROUND: It is not known whether long term nocturnal mechanical ventilation (NMV) reduces pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF). METHODS: Pulmonary haemodynamics, spirometric values, and gas exchange were studied in 33 patients requiring NMV due to CRF (20 with thoracic restriction, 13 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) at baseline and after 1 year of NMV given in the volume cycled mode. Patients with COPD also received supplemental oxygen. RESULTS: Long term NMV improved gas exchange while lung function remained unchanged. Mean pulmonary artery pressure at rest before NMV was higher in patients with thoracic restriction than in those with COPD (33 (10) mm Hg v 25 (6) mm Hg). After 1 year of NMV mean pulmonary artery pressure decreased in patients with thoracic restriction to 25 (6) mm Hg (mean change -8.5 mm Hg (95% CI -12.6 to -4.3), p<0.01) but did not change significantly in patients with COPD (mean change 2.2 mm Hg (95% CI -0.3 to 4.8)). CONCLUSIONS: Long term NMV in CRF improves pulmonary haemodynamics in patients with thoracic restriction but not in patients with COPD.

Publication Types:
Clinical trial
Controlled clinical trial
PMID: 11413350, UI: 21306724

Thorax 2001 Jul;56(7):519-23

Effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on exhaled nitric oxide in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Clini E, Bianchi L, Foglio K, Porta R, Vitacca M, Ambrosino N
Lung Function Unit and Respiratory Disease Department, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Gussago, I-25064 Gussago (BS), Italy.

BACKGROUND: In patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the exercise induced increase in exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) parallels that observed in normal untrained subjects. There is no information on the effects of the level of exercise tolerance on eNO in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a pulmonary rehabilitation programme including exercise training on eNO in patients with COPD. METHODS: In 14 consecutive male patients with stable COPD of mean (SD) age 64 (9) years and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 55 (14)% predicted, fractional eNO concentration (FeNO), peak work rate (Wpeak) and oxygen uptake (VO2peak) were assessed at baseline (T-1), at the end of a 1 month run in period (T0), and after an 8 week outpatient multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation programme (T1) including cycloergometer training. RESULTS: FeNO did not significantly differ at T-1 and T0 (mean (SE) 4.3 (0.6) and 4.4 (0.6) ppb, respectively), whereas it rose significantly at T1 to 6.4 (0.7) ppb (p<0.02). Compared with T0, both Wpeak and VO2 were significantly (p<0.05) increased at T1 (mean (SE) Wpeak from 89 (5.6) W to 109 (6.9) W); VO2peak from 1.27 (0.1) l/min to 1.48 (0.1) l/min). A significant correlation was found between baseline FEV1 and the change in FeNO following the rehabilitation programme (r=-0.71; p<0.05) and between changes in FeNO and Wpeak from T0 to T1(r=0.60; p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with mild to moderate COPD is associated with an increase in exhaled nitric oxide.

PMID: 11413349, UI: 21306723

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